Asst. Prof. Dr. Tawfek Aamir Jawad Sheer Ali
Soil compaction is one of the most important processes in constructing buildings or roads to get the best performance possible for long-term use. Compacting the layers below the structure or road well gives them the strength and rigidity to withstand loads or heavy traffic and some harmful effects to the environment. Conventional equipment and techniques have worked well to achieve the target levels of pressure (compaction) well over the years, but have not been without difficulties and challenges, the most important of these challenges is the irregular rate of reduction and water content along the restricted area, especially in natural soils, as well as uneven temperatures in hot mix asphalt and other problems known to most construction engineers. These problems have resulted in reduced productivity and higher costs during construction as well as reduced performance and shortened working age, and higher maintenance and rehabilitation costs. Over the past ten years there have been several major innovations in technology for construction that will revolutionize the construction of buildings in general and roads in particular. One of these innovations is Intelligent Compaction (IC) which aims to address some of the problems associated with traditional compaction methods.
Overview of Intelligent Compaction Technology (IC):
Intelligent Reduction (IC) is an improved compaction process using an integrated metering system consisting of a highly accurate GPS system, accelerometers and a wireless system that transmits compaction information to a private computer as well as infrared thermometers. By integrating measurement, documentation and control systems, the use of intelligent rollers machine allows for real-time monitoring and correction of the compaction process. Intelligent rollers machine also maintains a continuous record of color-coded shots indicating the number of times the load is passed, the pressure level, temperature measurements, and the exact location of the roller cylinder. The ability of Intelligent Compaction (IC) to improve the compaction is documented through projects in Europe, Asia and the United States. The most significant improvement decrease in the contrast of measured properties, the most consistent material properties obtained by IC ensure high-quality layers that deliver the desired performance and service life.
Advantages of Intelligent Compaction Technology (IC):
Intelligent Compaction (IC) technologies offer a number of benefits for construction as well as conventional compaction features that reduce the variation in the compaction of soil or asphalt layers.
1. Improved labor performance and construction time: materials can be recycled with the appropriate amount of compressing effort each time for the passage of the roller to help ensure proper rigidity is achieved. Reducing the number of passage times of roller or over-performing can result poor performance.
2 – Reduce the variation in the specifications of the used materials: Intelligent compaction equipment allows to monitor the rigidity of the material closely so that there is less volatility in the final result. In the long run, low variance will result better structure or road performance and reduced maintenance and repair costs.
3. Reduced compaction and maintenance requirements: Flexibility in fewer passes to achieve the correct compaction level reduces fuel use and equipment wear.
4. Identification of areas that cannot be compacted: Areas that fail to reach the target compaction level can be identified as potential areas for redrafting, removing or replacing the damaged material.
5. Ability to make corrections: Ensures the ability to correct pressure problems in an underground layer (before additional layers are laid).
6. Ability to maintain construction records: Data can be downloaded from the intelligent compaction process in addition to the GPS coordinates of the compaction activity in the building quality databases and stored electronically for future reference.
7. Ability to create a compaction map: Weak points can be identified (usually used in roads rehabilitation projects).